A planet-bearing sphere revolving around an equant point will wobble; situate one sphere within another, and the two will collide, disrupting the heavenly order. This insight was the starting point for his attempt to resolve the conflict raised by wobbling physical spheres. Copernicus might have continued this work by considering each planet independently, as did Ptolemy in the Almagest, without any attempt to bring all the models together into a coordinated arrangement.
The difficulty focused on the locations of Venus and Mercury. There was general agreement that the Moon and Sun encircled the motionless Earth and that Mars , Jupiter , and Saturn were situated beyond the Sun in that order. In the Commentariolus, Copernicus postulated that, if the Sun is assumed to be at rest and if Earth is assumed to be in motion, then the remaining planets fall into an orderly relationship whereby their sidereal periods increase from the Sun as follows: Mercury 88 days , Venus days , Earth 1 year , Mars 1.
This theory did resolve the disagreement about the ordering of the planets but, in turn, raised new problems. It was also necessary to explain how a transient body like Earth, filled with meteorological phenomena, pestilence, and wars, could be part of a perfect and imperishable heaven. In addition, Copernicus was working with many observations that he had inherited from antiquity and whose trustworthiness he could not verify. In constructing a theory for the precession of the equinoxes , for example, he was trying to build a model based upon very small, long-term effects.
And his theory for Mercury was left with serious incoherencies. He remarked in the preface to De revolutionibus that he had chosen to withhold publication not for merely the nine years recommended by the Roman poet Horace but for 36 years, four times that period. Rheticus, a Lutheran from the University of Wittenberg, Germany, stayed with Copernicus at Frauenburg for about two and a half years, between and It provided a summary of the theoretical principles contained in the manuscript of De revolutionibus, emphasized their value for computing new planetary tables, and presented Copernicus as following admiringly in the footsteps of Ptolemy even as he broke fundamentally with his ancient predecessor.
It also provided what was missing from the Commentariolus : a basis for accepting the claims of the new theory. Both Rheticus and Copernicus knew that they could not definitively rule out all possible alternatives to the heliocentric theory. Rheticus compared this new universe to a well-tuned musical instrument and to the interlocking wheel-mechanisms of a clock.
The theories of his predecessors, he wrote, were like a human figure in which the arms, legs, and head were put together in the form of a disorderly monster. His own representation of the universe, in contrast, was an orderly whole in which a displacement of any part would result in a disruption of the whole. In effect, a new criterion of scientific adequacy was advanced together with the new theory of the universe. Nicolaus Copernicus. Article Media. From to he studied at the University of Leipzig ; during this time, he Latinized his name to Apianus lat.
In , Apianus moved to Vienna and continued his studies at the University of Vienna , which was considered one of the leading universities in geography and mathematics at the time and where Georg Tannstetter taught. When the plague broke out in Vienna in , he completed his studies with a BA and moved to Regensburg and then to Landshut. At Landshut, he produced his Cosmographicus liber , a highly respected work on astronomy and navigation which was to see at least 30 reprints in 14 languages and that remained popular until the end of the 16th century.
Later editions were produced by Gemma Frisius. In , Peter Apianus was called to the University of Ingolstadt as a mathematician and printer. His print shop started small.
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Among the first books he printed were the writings of Johann Eck , Martin Luther 's antagonist. This print shop was active between and and became well known for its high-quality editions of geographic and cartographic works.
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Through his work, Apianus became a favourite of emperor Charles V , who had praised Cosmographicus liber at the Imperial Diet of and granted him a printing monopoly in and In , the emperor made Apianus an armiger , i. Charles promised him a truly royal sum 3, golden guilders , [a] appointed him his court mathematician, and made him a Reichsritter a Free Imperial Knight and in even an Imperial Count Palatine. All this furthered Apianus's reputation as an eminent scientist.ustanovka-kondicionera-deshevo.ru/libraries/2020-03-19/3363.php
Astronomicum Caesareum is noted for its visual appeal. Printed and bound decoratively, with about known copies,  it included several Volvelles that allowed users to calculate dates, the positions of constellations and so on. Thirty-five octagonal paper cut instruments were included with woodcuts that are thought to have been made by Hans Brosamer c.
On this map Ursa Minor is an old woman and three maidens, Draco is four camels and Cepheus was illustrated as a shepherd with sheep and dog. Although he neglected his teaching duties, the university evidently was proud to host such an esteemed scientist.
Peter Apian Stock Photos & Peter Apian Stock Images - Alamy
Apianus's work included in mathematics—in he published a variation of Pascal's triangle , and in a table of sines — as well as astronomy. In , he observed Halley's Comet and noted that a comet 's tail always point away from the sun. He designed sundials , published manuals for astronomical instruments and crafted volvelles "Apian wheels" , measuring instruments useful for calculating time and distance for astronomical and astrological applications. Apianus married the daughter of a councilman of Landshut, Katharina Mosner, in They would have fourteen children together, five girls and nine sons, one of whom was Philipp Apian — , who, in addition to his own research, preserved the legacy of his father.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Minor Planet Center.